Alleged absence of referees are the most common cause of game breaks in German amateur football. This is apparent from a study by the Tübingen Criminologist Thaya Vester on behalf of the German Football Federation (DFB).

Accordingly, potential wrong decisions in the seasons considered in 2018/19 and 2019/20 are the trigger for 29.8 percent of violent game breakdowns, behind it with 26.1 percent an escalation chain in the dispute over a supposed foul follows.

Conflicts from interculturality (4.7 percent) or conflicts outstanding from the spectators (4.2 percent) are rarely the causes of abbreviations.

Probabilistic ML — Lecture 26 — Making Decisions

At 38.4 percent of cases, the referees themselves felt a danger, as perpetrators often showed a changeender. Particularly often games are aborted in late autumn to the end of the first round, with disproportionately many games, this happens in the three minutes before halftime.

The demolition rate in German football is 0.041, every 2415th game is ended ahead of average. “The valuable findings from the Spielabrage Study enable us to effectively optimize our measures for violence prevention and develop new approaches,” said DFB vice president Ronny Zimmermann. In particular, linguistic violence was also noticed in the study.